The spatially-differentiated heat supply strategy was developed for the canton (Swiss state) of Appenzell Ausserhoden. The method linked socially-viable energy visions with the modelling of technically feasible, cost-effective energy scenarios.
In Austria, overall final energy consumption has increased again after the sharp decline in 2009, which was due to the financial crisis and corresponding economic recession. In order to address this trend, Austria’s Energy Strategy, the National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) and the Energy Efficiency Law have set a target value for primary energy consumption of 1050 PetaJoule in 2020 (compared to 1120 PJ in 2013).
In France, interactions between climate and energy policies can potentially occur through the National Low-Carbon Strategy (NLCS), which aims at supporting the country’s transition towards a sustainable, low-carbon economy. The NLCS interacts with climate and environmental policy making at different levels. On the one hand, the strategy is designed within the context of EU climate policies, while on the other hand, it may have an impact on policy making at regional and local levels in France.
Som Energia (We are Energy) is a renewable energy consumers’ cooperative founded in 2011 in Barcelona, Catalonia that has engaged 20,000 members in less than 5 years – in the State of Catalonia and throughout Spain. Even though the founders designed Som Energia as a local organization, many groups in Spain contacted them early on in order to learn about possible replication of the cooperative in their regions.
The Flower of the Desert (Il Fiore del Deserto) was founded in 2000, with the aim to start developing solidarity projects and ideas to respond to the new forms of poverty, marginalization, disease and social exploitation. Activities include enhancement of the socio-economic and cultural condition of their guests through social entrepreneurship. One of the key aspects of the activities done by The Flower of the Desert is that it encourages environmental sustainability projects tightly coupled with educational purposes.
JAPA ry is a non-profit, politically independent association that was founded in 2001 in Jyväskylä, Finland. The association’s title JAPA comes from the Finnish words meaning “The Local Agenda of the citizens of Jyväskylä”. Their main aim is to contribute to sustainability in various ways based on the local peoples’ everyday needs. Their activities include planning and implementation of various sustainable development-related projects and events. The association was founded by the many residents’ associations of the Jyväskylä area.
The Centre of Sustainable Development in Oulu, Northern Finland, offers mainly rehabilitative work, work trials, and wage subsidy jobs for youths (btw. 18-28 years old). Once employed by the Centre one can try out various jobs and gain experience in several areas. The work is combined with practical training and courses, which take place mostly in the Centre’s own workshops and services (such as commercial waste collection, recycling points’ construction, bicycle and sewing workshop, and light machinery and auto repair shops). Annually some 200 people are employed.
WLD (Water, Land and Dikes) is an organisation of farmers that has started as an agricultural nature conservation organisation. Because the organisation was able to get funding for projects, a wide knowledge base was developed that is used for discussing the new Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) with the national government. WLD proposed to do a pilot. In total 4 pilots in 4 different regions were subsidised by the government, of which one pilot was done by WLD. In this pilot WLD practiced with being an ‘implementation organisation’ and developed new services.
This case challenges the commonly held view that local experimentation is a 'bottom-up‘ process and suggests that local experimentation can be strongly conditioned and structured by a combination of priorities of national and urban tiers of governance and limited local capacity to achieve these priorities. Local experimentation, in this view, is a response to national and urban priorities rather than locally embedded priorities.
The case is about the formation and development of a sustainable school catering company in Germany. The start of the initiative was in 2000. Back then, the organic food as well as school catering was not as widely spread as it is nowadays. The focus of the case will be on the establishment of the company and realignement after an insolvency. The main interest of the case is thus on governance.